Alternatives in the oppression of nature-as-a-context-of-living-beings:
a.) “dominium terrae” [bible, says humans should rule and subjugate the world]
b.) “nature-as-a-resource” [the endeavours in the natural sciences have always been going along with generating economic benefits for any oppressive human castes]
Both spiritually in most religions, and philosophically in most sciences: Nature is seen as a means, a tool, a “material” that can be reduced in its autonomous sense and value.
Gruppe Messel / Tierautonomie / Animal Autonomy